Roy McAlister, The Solar Hydrogen Civilization: The Future of Energy is the Future of Our Global Economy, American Hydrogen Association, Phoenix, Arizona. (2005)
Graphene: “an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, honey-comb lattice in which one atom forms each vertex… Graphene has many extraordinary properties. It is about 100 times stronger than the strongest steel. It conducts heat and electricity efficiently and is nearly transparent… The global market for graphene is reported to have reached $9 million by 2012 with most sales in the semiconductor, electronics, battery energy and composites industries.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene
Carbon Fiber: “are fibers about 5–10 micromeres in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms… To produce a carbon fiber, the carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber as the crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (making it strong for its size). Several thousand carbon fibers are bundled together to form a tow, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_fibers The global demand on carbon fiber composites was estimated at around US$15.75 billion in 2015.
Composite materials: a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components. The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new material may be preferred for many reasons: common examples include materials which are stronger, lighter, or less expensive when compared to traditional materials. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_material
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers, …CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are commonly used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and rigidity are required, such as aerospace, automotive, civil engineering, sports goods and an increasing number of other consumer and technical applications. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_fiber_reinforced_polymer. The global carbon fiber reinforced plastic market (CFRP) is projected to reach USD 35.75 Billion by 2020. .http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/carbon-fiber-composites.asp
Peak, Matt (Editor, 2011). “Carbon Capture & Recycling Industry Overview: A review and analysis of technologies and organizations that recycle industrial carbon dioxide emissions into beneficial new products,” Prepared by Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. for Prize Capital (2011).
Peak, Matt (Editor, 2013). “Commercializing the CO2-Asset Industry: A comprehensive industry creation and commercialization engine to catalyze a world where CO2 is an asset,” Prepared by Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. for Prize Capital, 2013.
Peak, Matt (Editor, 2013). “Commercializing the CO2-Asset Industry: A comprehensive industry creation and commercialization engine to catalyze a world where CO2 is an asset,” Prepared by Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, Inc. for Prize Capital (2013).
Gore, Al. The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change. Random House (2013). Chapter 1 is about the emergence of a deeply interconnected global economy, includes sections on “Rethinking Resources,” p 27 describes the impact of emerging new carbon technology, and “The Rise of 3D Printing” p 30 describes the impact of emerging additive manufacturing as technology learns to directly assemble atoms and molecules to make products.
Das, Sujit; Warren, Josh; West, Devin. “Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis” (PDF). Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, .
The global carbon fiber reinforced plastic market (CFRP) is projected to reach USD 35.75 Billion by 2020. .http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/carbon-fiber-composites.asp
Dahl, J., K. Buechler, R. Finley , T. Stanislaus , A. Weimer , A. Lewandowski , C. Bingham , A. Smeets , and A. Schneider: ”Rapid Solar-thermal Dissociation of Natural Gas in an Aerosol Flow Reactor”. Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0424; National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401-3393
Red, Chris. Mesa, Az (2019)
“2014-2023 Global Composite Aerostructures Market Outlook”;
“The Opportunity for Advanced Composites in Aircraft Engines and Nacelles: 2013-2022”;
“The Emergence of CFRP in Mass Production Automobiles: 2013-2022”;
“Global Markets for Carbon Fiber Composites: 2013-2022”.
“2017-2023 Global Opportunities for Advanced Composites in Commercial & Regional Transport Aircraft (unpublished);
“2017-2023 Demand for Composites in Wind and Alternative Energy Production” (unpublished).